This book marks an exciting contribution to the development and application of Processability Theory. It offers the reader an extensive overview and a critical discussion of the existing research into processability procedural skills, from Germanic to Asian and Arabic languages. It also develops a new perspective on the study of Chinese as a second language (CSL) acquisition, moving from theory to practice. The strength of this book lies not only in its innovative approach to CSL learning, but also in the potential practical applications of the approach to the development of the Chinese teaching syllabus and elicitation tasks. This research presented will benefit both learners and teachers. As a second language learner acquiring Chinese, this book will tell you how to facilitate the learning process in an easy and scientific way. As a teacher of Chinese, this book will help you to know what to teach, and how to teach it, and, importantly, will teach you how to understand learners' language processing from a practical point of view. The book affords a unique insight into the Chinese processability hierarchy which delineates the universal processing trajectory of CSL learners. The research design and data analysis procedures, which are presented and explained clearly and thoroughly, constitute an original contribution to the growing research into Chinese language acquisition, and will pave the wave for future research in the field. The book will be of considerable interest to linguists working in the field of Processability Theory and will be enjoyed by both CSL learners and their teachers.
Alternative Pathways to Complexity focuses on the themes of architecture, economics, and power in the evolution of complex societies. Case studies from Mesoamerica, Asia, Africa, and Europe examine the relationship between political structures and economic configurations of ancient chiefdoms and states through a framework of comparative archaeology. A group of highly distinguished scholars takes up important issues, theories, and methods stemming from the nascent body of research on comparative archaeology to showcase and apply important theories of households, power, and how the development of complex societies can be extended and refined. Drawing on the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and ethnographic records, the chapters in this volume contain critical investigations on the role of collective action, economics, and corporate cognitive codes in structuring complex societies. Alternative Pathways to Complexity is an important addition to theoretical development and empirical research on Mesoamerica, the Old World, and cross-cultural studies. The theoretical implications addressed in the chapters will have broad appeal for scholars grappling with alternative pathways to complexity in other regions as well as those addressing diverse cross-cultural research. Contributors: Sarah B. Barber, Cynthia L. Bedell, Christopher S. Beekman, Frances F. Berdan, Tim Earle, Carol R. Ember, Gary M. Feinman, Arthur A. Joyce, Stephen A. Kowalewski, Lisa J. LeCount, Linda M. Nicholas, Peter N. Peregrine, Peter Robertshaw, Barbara L. Stark, T. L. Thurston, Deborah Winslow, Rita Wright.
With its active fault systems, complex landforms, and myriad natural habitats, southern California boasts a rich and dynamic geologic environment. This abundantly illustrated volume at last provides an up-to-date, authoritative, and accessible resource for students and general readers interested in southern California's geology and native plants. Covering an extensive area, north from San Diego to Yosemite in the Sierra Nevada and east to the Mojave and Colorado deserts, its unique, comprehensive approach brings together for the first time the basic principles of geology, the story of plate tectonics, in-depth discussion of the geology of many specific locales within the region, and information on identifying southern California's native plants.
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